**BIO 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I (2 UNITS)**

General characteristics, similarities, differences, distribution and economic importance of virus, Bacteria, fungi, lower green vascular plants. Ecological adaptation of various plant forms. Interrelationship of plants evolution and reproduction

**BIO 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II (2 UNITS) **

Systematic studies of diversity of life including monera, protista, plants (Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and angiosperms) and animals (Protozoa, Platyhelminthes, Annelids, Arthropods, Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals) based on similarities and differences in external morphology. Taxonomic divisions of plant and animal kingdoms. Ecological adaptations of these forms.

**CHM 101: INTRODUCTORY INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (2 UNITS)**

Hypothesis, theory and law with appropriate illustrations, Nature of matter – 3 states of matter, Atomic structure, electronic energy levels and orbital. Periodic classification of elements and its relationship to their electronic configurations, Chemical bonding, Survey of properties and trends in groups I, II, IV, VI and transition metal,

**CHM 103: INTRODUCTORY PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (2 UNITS)**

Mole concepts and calculations based on it, methods of expressing concentrations, Chemical Kinetics and equilibrium, and related calculations, Important application of equilibrium – pH, solubility products and solubility of ionic solids, Thermo chemistry and simple calculations based on Hess’s law, Electrochemistry and working of various cells, Brief mentions of corrosion; chemical thermodynamics; DG = DH – TDS

**CIT 101: COMPUTERS IN SOCIETY (2 UNITS)**

Introduction to Basic concepts of the Computer System; A survey of various uses of the Computer; Computer applications in the Modern Society; Effects of Computerization of the Workplace; Computer Ethnics and Security Issues, Classical examples of the effects of the internet on the society.

**CIT 102:** **APPLICATION SOFTWARE SKILLS (2 UNITS)**

Brief description of computer system: CPU, I/O devices; Operating systems; Computer File Management; Computer Software: overview, types, etc.; Application software: common application software; Using Microsoft Word; Using Microsoft Excel; Features of Database Applications and Microsoft Access; Statistical Analysis Applications; Using SPSS software; Introduction to Desktop Publishing applications; Computer applications in Nursing; Computer applications in Agriculture; Managing the computer system with the Control Panel. Protection.

**GST 101: USE OF ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS I (2 UNITS)**

Listening enabling skills, listening and comprehending comprehension, note taking and information retrieval. Including data, figures, diagrams and charts. Listening for main idea, interpretation and critical evaluation. Effective reading. skimming and scanning. Reading and comprehension at various speed levels. Vocabulary development in various academic contexts. Reading diverse texts in narratives and expository. Reading and comprehension passages with tables, scientific texts. Reading for interpretation and critical evaluation.

**GST 102: USE OF ENGLISH AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS II (2 UNITS)**

Writing paragraphs: Topic sentence and coherence. Development of paragraphs: illustration, Description, cause and effect including definitions. Formal letters; essential parts and stylistic forms, complaints and requests; jobs, ordering goods, letters to government and other organizations. Writing reports; reporting event, experiments. Writing summaries: techniques of summarizing letters and sounds in English, vowels and consonants. Interviews, seminar presentation, public speech making, articles, concord and sentences including tenses. Gerund, participles, active, passive and the infinitive. Modal auxiliaries.

**GST 105 HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (2 UNITS)**

Nature of science, scientific methods and theories; Law of nature,; History of science. Lost sciences of Africa, science, technology and inventions. Nature and scope of philosophy in science. Man, nature and his origin. Man , environment and resources. Great Nigerian Scientists.

**GST 107: THE GOOD STUDY GUIDE. (2 UNITS)**

Getting started: How to use the book, why read about skills, getting yourself organised ; what is studying all about, reading and note taking; Introduction, reactions to reading, your reading strategy, memory, taking notes, conclusion. Other ways of studying: Introduction, learning in groups, talks and lectures, learning from TV and radio broadcasts, other study media. Working with numbers; Getting to know numbers, describing the world, describing with the tables, describing with diagrams and graphs; What is good writing? The Importance of writing, what does an essay look like, what is a good essay? Conclusion. How to write essays: Introduction, the craft of writing, the advantages of treating essay writing as a craft, making your essay flow, making a convincing case, the experience of writing. Preparing for examination.

**GST122: INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY AND LOGIC (2 UNITS**)

General introduction to logic; clarity of thought; expression and arguments as basis for conclusion. Fundamentals of logic and critical thinking, types of discourse, nature of arguments; validity and soundness ; distinction between inductive and deductive inferences etc; illustrations from familiar texts, including literature materials, novels, law reports and newspaper publications.

**MTH 101 GENERAL MATHEMATIC I: (3 Units) (ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY) **Elementary set theory, subsets, union, intersection, complements, Venn diagrams; Real numbers; integers, rational and irrational numbers, mathematic I, induction real sequences and series, theory of quadratic equations, binomial theorem. Complex numbers; Algebra of complex numbers; the Argand Diagram; Re Moivre’s theorem; nth roots of unity. Circular measure; trigonometric functions of angles of any magnitude, addition and factor formalae

**MTH 102 GENERAL MATHEMATICS II: (3 Units) **

Calculus: Function of a real variable, graphs, limits and idea of continuity. The derivative as limit of rate of change; Techniques of differentiation; Extreme curve sketching; Integration as an inverse of differentiation; Methods of integration, Definite integrals; Application to areas, volumes.

**PHY 101: ****Elementary Mechanics, Heat and Properties of Matter (2 UNITS) **

Space and Time: Physical quantities: Units and dimensions of physical quantities; Kinematics: Uniform velocity motion, uniformly accelerated motion; Dynamics: Newton’s laws of motion; Impulse and Linear Momentum, Linear Collision, Newton’s universal law of gravitation; Work, energy and power; Conservation laws; Concept of mechanical equilibrium; Centre of mass and centre of gravity; Moment of a force; Rotational kinematics and dynamics: Torque; Moment of Inertia; angular momentum; Total mechanical energy. Simple harmonic motion

Heat and temperature, work and heat, Quantity of heat: heat capacities, latent heat; Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases; Gas laws, heat transfer; Laws of thermodynamics: Isothermal and Adiabatic changes, Carnot cycle; Application kinetic theory of gases; van der Waals gas.

Classification of matter into (solids, liquids and gases, forces between atoms and molecules, molecular theory of matter, Elasticity, plasticity, Hook’s Law, Young’s Shear and bulk Moduli) Crystalline and non-crystalline materials, Hydrostatics: pressure, buoyancy, Archimedes’ principle; Hydro-dynamics-streamlines, Bernouli and Continuity equations, turbulence, Reynold’s number, Viscosity, laminar flow, Poiseuille’s equation; Surface tension, adhesion, cohesion, capillary, drops and bubbles.

**PHY 102: ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM AND MODERN PHYSICS (2 UNITS)**

Electrostatics: Coulomb’s law, Gauss’s law, potential and capacitance, dielectrics, production and measurement of static electricity. Current: Ohm’s law, resistance and resistivity, heating. Galvanometers, Voltmeters and Ammeters; D.C. circuits: sources of emf and currents, Kirchhoff’s laws; Electrochemistry; The Earth’s magnetic field; Magnetic fields and induction, Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws; Force on a current-carrying conductor. Biot-Savart law. Flemming’s right and left-hand rules, motors and generators. A.C. Theory. Atomic structure; Production and properties of X-rays; Radioactivity; Photoelectric emission.

## PHY 103: GEOMETRIC AND WAVE OPTICS (2 UNITS)

Geometrical Optics: law of reflection and refraction; Location of images: Plane and curved mirrors; Converging and diverging thin lenses; Thick lenses; Lens defects; Aberrations; The eye; Optical instruments. Simple Harmonic motion; Wave motion and wave types; Dispersion; Production of sound in strings and pipes resonance, applications; Simple description of diffraction and interference, applications to both light and sound waves; Polarization of transverse waves.

**PHY 191: INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS LABORRATORY I (1 UNITS)**

Graphs, Measurement, Error Analysis, Determination of Acceleration due to Gravity by Means of Simple Pendulum, Determination of force constant of a spiral spring, Determination of effective mass of a spiral spring and the constant, Determination of surface tension of water, Determination of specific latent heat of fusion of ice, Determination of the co-efficient of limiting static friction between two surfaces, Determination of the co-efficient of static friction on two surfaces using an inclined plane, Determination of Relative Density of kerosene using the specific Gravity Bottle,

**PHY 192: INTRODUCTORY PRACTICAL PHYSICS II (1 UNITS)**

Refraction through the glass block; Image formed by a concave mirror; Determination of the focal length of the convex mirror; Refraction through the triangular prism; Determination of the focal length of a converging lens and the refractive index of groundnut; Determination of resistance of resistors in series and in parallel in simple circuits; Determination of internal resistance of a dry cell using a potentiometer; To compare the E.M.F. of cells using potentiometer; Determine the unknown resistance of a resistor using Wheatstone Bridge; To determine the relationship between current through a Tungsten and a potential applied across it.

**CIT 215: INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES (3 UNITS)**

FORTRAN programming language; Comparison of various versions of the language. Programming exercises using FORTRAN with emphasis on scientific application problems. Elements of Pascal language. Exercises in Pascal Programme structures and programming concepts; Structured design principles; abstraction, modularity, stepwise refinement, structured design techniques teaching of a structured programming language, e.g. PASCA/JAVA, C^{++}.

**GST201 NIGERIAN PEOPLES AND CULTURE (2 UNITS ) **

Nigerian history, culture and arts in pre-colonial times; Nigerians’ perception of their world; culture areas of Nigeria and their characteristics; evolution of Nigeria as a political unit; indigene/settler phenomenon; concepts of trade; economic self- reliance; social justice; individual and national development; norms and values; negative attitudes and conducts (cultism and related vices); re-orientation of moral and national values; moral obligations of citizens; environmental problems.

**MTH 210 : INTRODUCTION TO COMPLEX ANALYSIS (3 UNITS)**

Complex number, the topology of complex plane. Limits and continuity of function of complex variables, properties and example of analytic functions, branch-points, Cauchy-Riemann equations. Harmonic function.

**MTH 211: INTRODUCTION TO SET THEORY AND ABSTRACT ALGEBRA (2 UNITS)**

Set: Binary operations, mapping, equivalence relations integers: Fundamental theorem of arithmetic, congruence equations, Euler’s function (n) Group Theory: Definition and examples of groups. Subgroups, coset decomposition, Lagrange’s theorem. Cyclic groups. Homeomorphisms, isomorphism. Odd and even permutations. Cayley’s theorem. Rings: Definition and examples of rings. Commutative rings. Integral domain. Order, well-ordering principles. Mathematical induction.

**MTH 212: LINEAR ALGEBRA II (3 UINTS)**

Vector spaces; Liner independence. Basis, change of basis and dimension; Linear equations and matrices. ; Linear maps. The diagonal; permutation; triangular matrices. Elementary matri;. The inverse of a matrix; Rank and nullity. Determinants; Adjoint, cofactors, inverse matric. Determinantial rank. Crammer’s rule. Canonical forms, similar matrices, Eigen values and vectors, quadratic forms.

**MTH 232: ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION I (3 UNITS)**

Introduction; equation of first order and first degree, separable equations, homogeneous equations, exact equations, linear equations, Bernoulli’s and Riccati equations. Applications to mechanics and electricity; Orthogonal and oblique trajectories. Second order equations with constant coefficients.

**MTH281 MATHEMATICAL METHOD I (3 UNITS)**

**Sequences and Series; Limits, Continuity, Differentiability, Implicit Functions, Sequences, Series, Test For Convergence Sequences And Series Of Functions .Calculus, Partial Differentiation, Total Derivatives, Implicitly Function, Change Of Variable, Talyor’s Theorem And Maxima And Minimum Functions Of Two Variables, Lagrangian Multiplier. Numerical Methods; Introduction to Iterative Methods, Newton’s Method Applied To Finding Roots. Trapezium and Simpson’s Rules of Integration.**

**PHY 201: CLASSICAL MECHANICS I (3 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: PHY101 **

Vector Analysis; Review of coordinate transformations; Particle kinematics and dynamics, Many particle systems; Central force: Motion in a central force field; Central-conservative forces; Kinematics in polar coordinates; Energy conservation in central-conservative force-field; Planetary Motion; Keplerian case; Rigid body dynamics. Newtonian gravitation; Conservatives and potentials; Defects of Newtonian mechanics and the essence of special relativity.

**PHY 202: MODERN PHYSICS I (3 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: PHY102**

Atomic structure: Experimental basis of quantum theory: Black body radiation; electrons and quanta; Charge quantization, Mass spectra, the plum pudding model, Rutherford model and Bohr models of the atom, Hydrogen spectra, Magnetic moment and Angular momentum of an atom, Electron spin, Pauli Exclusion Principle and electronic configuration, X-ray spectra, De Broglie hypothesis, the uncertainty principle; Wave-particle duality, Schrodinger’s equation and simple applications; Nuclear Structure: nomenclature, binding energy and stability, Radioactivity, The radioactive series, Accelerators, Detectors. Bohr’s theory of atomic structure;

**PHY 203: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: PHY 101, **

Simple harmonic motion, Superposition of simple harmonic oscillations, Damped harmonic motion, Forced oscillations and resonance, Coupled oscillations, Wave motion, Waves at the boundary of two media, Superposition of waves.

**PHY 204: ELECTROMAGNETISM (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITES:PHY102, **Macroscopic properties of dielectrics: polarisation, Gauss’s law in a dielectric, the displacement vector, boundary conditions on **D** and **E**, dielectric strength and breakdown; Capacitor: capacitance, the parallel plate capacitor, effect of a dielectric, energy stored in a dielectric medium, capacitors in series and parallel, practical capacitors; Microscopic properties of dielectrics: microscopic picture of a dielectric in a uniform electric field, determination of local field, Clausius-Mossotti equation, behaviour of dielectric in alternating fields; Magnetism of materials: response of various substances to a magnetic field, magnetic moment and angular momentum of an atom, diamagnetism and paramagnetism, Lamor precession, magnetization of paramagnets, ferromagnetism, magnetic field due to a magnetized material, magnetic intensity, relationship between **E** and **H** for magnetic material, magnetic circuits.

**PHY 205 INTRODUCTION FOR SPACE PHYSICS (2 Units) ****PREREQUISITE: PHY 101**

Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics, Satellite Communication, introduction to atmospheric Science, Space Environment, Space craft systems and Dynamics, Aero/Astrodynamic Engineering, Rocket Engineering, Cosmology, Origin of universe and life, Space Law and Business development.

## PHY 206: OPTICS I (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: PHY 103

Nature of light: the corpuscular model, the wave model, light as an electromagnetic wave; Reflection and refraction of light: electromagnetic waves at the interface separating two media, idealization of waves as light rays, Fermat’s principle; Perception of light: human vision, colour vision; Polarization of light: simple states of polarized light, principles of producing linearly polarized light, wave plates.

## PHY 207: THERMODYNAMICS (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY 101

Basic concepts of thermodynamics; Measurement of temperature; The First Law of Thermodynamics; Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics; Consequences of the first and second laws; Carnot engine; Combined first and second laws; Helmholtz and Gibb functions, Enthalpy, The thermodynamic potentials; phase transitions; Production of low temperatures and the Third Law.

**PHY 208: NETWORK ANALYSIS AND DEVICES (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY102 **Circuit analysis: circuit elements, Kirchhoff’s laws, complex impedances, current-voltage source transformations, circuit theorems; ac and dc circuits: resonant circuits, impedance matching, theory of passive filters, attenuators; Electron devices: vacuum tubes, semiconductor materials, p-n junction diodes, transistors.

*PHY 261: GEOPHYSICS I (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY 101, PHY102*

Gravity methods: Newton’s gravitation, applications; Instruments: gravimeters, zero-length spring; Densities: rocks and ores; Magnetic methods: definitions, concepts; Geomagnetism:

origin, properties of rocks; Gravity and magnetic field survey: instruments, data processing, interpretations; The earth: internal structure and constitution; Field work.

## PHY 291: PHYSICS LABORATORY I (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: PHY101, PHY102, PHY203 PHY208

Measurement; Error Analysis; Investigation of the Dependence of the Period of a Pendulum on Length, Amplitude and Mass; Oscillations of a Spring-Mass System and a Torsional Pendulum; A Study of Energy and Momentum Conservation Principles; A Study of Coupled Oscillations; Relation between Wavelength and Frequency of Stationary Waves; Young’s Modulus for a Material by Bending of Beams; Measurement of Low Resistance using Carey Foster’s Bridge; Variation of Thermo-E.M.F. with Temperature; Frequency Response of A.C. Series Circuits; Zener Diode Characteristics and Zener as A Voltage Regulator; A Study of Transistor Characteristics.

**STT 211: PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION I (3 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: MTH 101, 102**

Discrete sample spaces: Algebra and probability of events, combinatorial analysis. Sampling with and without replacement. Conditional probability, Bayes theorem and stochastic independence. Discrete distributions: Binomial, Poisson, negative binomial-hyper geometric and multinomial. Normal approximation to binomial and Poisson, Poisson approximation to binomial. Random variables and expectations: mean, variance, covariance. Probability generating function and moment generating function. Chebychev,s inquality. Continuous joint distributions: marjind as conditional density. Expectations**: **movement**, **movement generating functions. Uniform, normal, beta, Cauchy and hop- normal distributions.

**MTH 302: ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION II**

Series, solution of second order linear equations. Bessel, Legendre and hypergeometric equations and functions; Gamma and Beta functions. Sturm Liouville problems; Orthogonal polynomial and functions, Fourier, Fourier, Bessel and Fourier – legendry series. Expansion in series of orthogonal functions. Fourier transformation. Laplace transforms, solution of wave and heat equations by Fourier method.

**MTH 303: VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS**

Vector algebra, Vector dot and cross products; Equation of curves and surfaces. Vector differentiation and application; Gradient; divergence and curl; Vector integration, line, surface and volume integrals; Green Stokes’s and divergence theorems; Tensor products and vector spaces tensor algebra; symmetry; Cartesian tensors.

## PHY 301: CLASSICAL MECHANICS (3 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY201, PHY203

Motion under central conservative forces; scattering; Motion in non-inertial frames of reference, Generalized coordinates, Constraints, The Lagrange formulation of mechanics, Hamilton’s formulation of mechanics.

## PHY 302: MODERN PHYSICS II (2 UNITS) PRE-REQUISITE: PHY202

The hydrogen atom; relativistic effects and spin; Identical particles and symmetry; Many electron atoms; Properties of atomic orbits; Optical spectra of the hydrogen atom; Spontaneous and simulated emissions (lasers and masers); Spectra of alkali metals; Quantum effects; Coupling schemes and vector model: j-j couplings. Bohr magneton; Space quantization; Stern Gerlach experiment; Zeeman effect; Hyperfine structure and isotopes and nuclear spin; Nuclear spin number; Molecular spectroscopy: rotation, vibration-rotation, electronic The diatomic molecule; the Frank-Condon principle. X-ray spectra; Microwave methods; Resonance phenomena, ESR, NMR; Optical pumping and Mossbauer scattering.

## PHY 303: SPECIAL RELATIVITY (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY 201, PHY204

Einstein’s postulates and Lorentz transformation; Consequences of transformations of momentum and energy; Experimental verification of special relativity; Velocity addition theorem and Doppler effect; Electromagnetic 4-vector; Transformation of **E** and **H**; Lorentz force.

**PHY 304: ELECTRODYNAMICS I (2 UNITS) ****PRE-REQUISITE: PHY204**

Electrostatics and magnetostatics: Lapace equation and boundary value problems; Multipole expansion; Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic potentials; Maxwell’s wave equations; Conservation laws.

**PHY 305: ENERGY (2 UNITS) ****PRE-REQUISITE: PHY 201, PHY203**

Energy and power: principles, demands and outlook, transformation of energy and its costs; Thermal pollution; Electrical energy from fossil fuels; Hydro-electric generation: principles and problems, capacity, storage, reserves, efficiency and environmental effects; Electrical energy nuclear reactors: energy in future breeder reactors, fusion power, solar power, geothermal power, tidal power, etc.

**PHY 306: OPTICS (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITE:PHY209 **Interference by division of wavefront; Interference by division of amplitude; Interferometry; Fresnel diffraction; Fraunhofer diffraction; Diffraction gratings; Diffraction and resolution.

### PHY 307: SOLID STATE PHYSICS I (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY202

Crystal structure of solids; Crystal binding; X-ray diffraction in crystals, applications; Thermal properties of the crystal lattice; Elastic properties; Lattice vibrations: phonons; Free-electron theory of metals; Motion of electrons in periodic fields; Hall effect; Energy bands; Semiconductors; Superconductivity.

**PHY 308: ELECTRONICS I (3 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY206 **Amplifiers: Classification of amplifiers, equivalent circuit of transistor, operating point and bias stability, operating point and bias stability, small signal amplifier, r-f amplifiers; Oscillators: negative feedback, positive feedback, LC oscillators, RC oscillators; Power supply: power source, dc power unit, performance of rectifier, filter circuits, regulation of output voltage; Linear integrated circuits: the Op Amp and its applications, amplifiers and voltage regulators.

### PHY 309: QUANTUM MECHANICS I (3 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY202

Experimental basis of quantum theory: blackbody radiation, and Planck’s hypothesis, electron and quanta; Operators; Postulates of Quantum Mechanics; Correspondence principle, Schroedinger equations and their solutions; Applications: one-dimensional box problem, potential well and bound states, potential barrier, the tunnel effect; The harmonic oscillator.

**PHY 310: ELECTRONICS II (3 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: PHY308**

Multistage amplifiers; Power amplifiers; Classes A, B, C, Active and Passive Filters; Power systems: Use of transistors in stabilized power supplies; Field effect transistors.

**PHY 311: KINETIC THEORY AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS (2 UNITS) PRE-REQUISITE: PHY207 **Ideal gases; Transport phenomena; Brownian motion; Real gases; Basic concepts of Statistical Mechanics; the partition function, entropy and probability, equipartition of energy, classical statistics, quantum statistics; condensed states, phase transformations, Applications.

**PHY 312: MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR PHYSICS I (3 Units) **

Series, solution of second order linear equations. Special Functions : The gamma function; Beta function; Legendre functions; Bessel functions; Hermite and Languerre function, The Dirac Delta function. hypergeometric functions; Sturm Liouville problems; Orthogonal polynomial and functions,; Bessel’s and Fourier-Legendre series; Legendre polynomials; Hermite polynomials; Laguerre polynomials. Expansion in series of orthogonal functions; Integral Transforms and Fourier Series: Fourier series and Fourier transforms; Laplace transform; Applications of transform methods to the solution of elementary differential equations of interest in physics and engineering; Partial differential equations; solution of wave and heat equations by Fourier method; Application of Fourier to PDEs;

**PHY 313: MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR PHYSICS II (3 UNITS) ****PREREQUISITES: PHY301 **

LinearAlgebra and Functional Analysis; Transformations in linear vector spaces and matrix theory. Hilbert space and complete sets of orthogonal functions; Functions of a complex variable, analyticity, Complex integration; The residue theorem and its applications; conformal mapping; The eigenvalue problem for matrices; Diagonalisation of matrices; Introduction to tensors; Integral equations; Basic notions of group theory; Applications of group theory.

**PHY 314: NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS (2 UNITS) ****PREREQUISITES: PHY312; PHY313 **

Errors in numerical computations; Curve fitting; Solution of linear systems of equations; Numerical integration; Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations; Calculus of finite difference; Elements of C++ programming.

**PHY351: OPTOELECTRONICS (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: PHY209, PHY302, PHY308, PHY310**

Modulation of light: optical activity electro and magnetic optic effects and devices: Faraday effect, Kerr effect, Acousto-optic effect; Non-linear optics; Lasers: concepts; optical pumping; feedback; population inversion; Classes: doped, gas, liquid, semiconductor; Display devices and photoelectrons: Luminescence; Photoluminescence; photo-conductive detectors; Fibre optics and communication: concepts; fibre optical waveguides; planar dielectric wave guide; step index Fibres: intermodal dispersion; Losses in fibres; Integrated optics.

### PHY 361: GEOPHYSICS II (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY261

Seismic Methods: Elastic properties of rocks; Wave propagation in elastic media; Refraction and Reflection. Seismic: horizontal and inclined multiple interface; instrumentation; field procedures; Velocity Analysis; Methods of processing and interpretation; Application in oil and water prospecting; Borehole Geophysics.

**PHY 391: PHYSICS LABORATORY II (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: PHY308; PHY308**

A study of Network Theorems; Calibration of a thermistor and determination of energy gap; Construction and characterisation of power supplies & filters; Study of OPAMP as Summing and Inverting amplifiers; Study of OPAMP as Differentiator and Integrator; Detection and measurement of charge using an OPAMP; Study of some properties of lenses; Spectral analysis using a prism spectrometer; Interference of light- Young’s experiment; Spectral analysis using a grating spectrometer; Production, detection and reflection of polarized light; Study of interference of polarized light; Measurement of Cp/Cv by an acoustic method; Phase change.

**PHY 401: ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS (2 UNITS) PRE-REQUISITE: PHY302, PHY403 **Elementary particles: types; Conservation laws; Particle classification. Strong, electro-magnetic and weak interactions; Particle resonances; Symmetry models: SU(2), SU(3), etc.

**PHY 402: NUCLEAR PHYSICS (3 UNITS) PRE-REQUISITE: PHY302 **

Basic nuclear concepts: structure, size, nuclear masses, nuclear forces; Nuclear scattering: nuclear models; Energy spectra of alpha and beta decays; Fermi theory of -decay; Emission; internal conversion; Nuclear reactions; Interaction of nuclear radiation with matter.

**PHY403 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS (3UNITS) ****PREREQUISITE: ****PHY313**

The hydrogen atom; relativistic effects and spin; Identical particles and symmetry; Many electron atoms; Coupling schemes and vector model. Seeman effecct. Hyperfine structure; The diatomic molecule; the Frank-Condon principle. X-ray diffraction; Microwave methods; Resonance phenomena; ESR, NMR, and optical pumping and Mossbauer scattering

**PHY 404: ELECTRODYNAMICS III (2 UNITS) PRE-REQUISITE: PHY304 **

Propagation of plane waves in unbounded isotropic media; reflection, refraction; Transmission lines; Wave guides and resonant circuits; Radiation from an oscillating dipole; Radiation from moving charges.

**PHY 405: ELECTRONICS III (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: PHY308 **

Number systems and codes; Fundamentals of Boolean algebra and flip-flops; Registers counters, memory circuits and analogue/digital converters; Electronic instruments

**PHY 406: OPTICS III (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY306**

Coherence; Physics of Lasers: Light emission and absorption, prerequisites for a laser, types of lasers, applications; Holography: the principle, the process, applications; Fibre optics: optical fibre, optical communication through fibres.

**PHY 407: SOLID STATE PHYSICS II (2 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY307 **

Dielectric properties; Magnetism: paramagnetism and diamagnetism, ferromagnetism and anti-ferromagnetism. Magnetic resonance; Imperfections in solids

**PHY 408: ELECTRONICS IV (3 UNITS) PREREQUISITE: PHY 308 **High input impedance circuits; High frequency oscillators; Modulation and detection; Amplitude Modulation: Square law modulator and detector, switching modulator, envelope detector, double sideband suppressed carrier (DSBSC) modulation, generation of balanced modulator, ring modulation, coherent detector of DSBSC waves, double-balanced modulator; Single sideband modulation (SSB) and demodulator; Vestigal sideband modulation (VSB); Frequency modulated (FM) systems.

**PHY 409: QUANTUM MECHANICS II (3 UNITS) PRE-REQUISITE: PHY 309**

**PHY 409: QUANTUM MECHANICS II (3 UNITS) PRE-REQUISITE: PHY 309**

Three-dimensional spherical symmetric potentials; Angular momentum and spin of atomic and nuclear particles; Dirac Notation; Multi-electron atoms; Perturbation theory; scattering theory; elastic potential scattering; Green’s function and method of partial waves, Applications.

**PHY491: PHYSICS LABORATORY III**

400 Level practical in Pure and Experimental Physics ** **

**PHY 451: IONOSPHERIC PHYSICS (3 UNITS)**

The sun and formation of ionized layers; Formation and Structure of D, E and F layers of the ionosphere; Vertical and Oblique propagation of radio waves in the ionosphere; Ionospheric absorption and fading; Ionospheric disturbances.

**PHY 452: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (3 UNITS)**

Crystal Morphology; Crystal Optics; Classification of Crystals Polarization; Interference and Dispersion in Crystals; X-Ray Diffraction Applications in Research and Industry

**PHY 453: PLASMA PHYSICS (3 UNITS)**

Orbits of Individual Particles; Boltzmann Equation; Magnetohydrodynamics; Confinement of Plasmas Research and Industrial Applications

**PHY 454: ASTROPHYSICS (3 UNITS)**

Structure, origin, evolution of stars, galaxies, planets; Stellar Interiors- Equations, Solar model; Stellar Atmospheres-Abundance of Elements; Solar Radiation; Atmospheres.

**PHY 455: LOWER ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS (3 UNITS)**

Atmospheric composition and structure; Thermodynamics of water vapour and air; Hydrostatic stability and convection; tephigrams; gradient winds. Radiation in the atmosphere: absorption, scattering; Absorption spectra: electronic, vibrational, rotational; Lines and Bands; Broadening processes; pressure/collision; Doppler; Radiometric quantities; definitions and measurements; Radiative transfer equation.

**PHY 456: NUCLEAR REACTOR PHYSICS (3 UNITS) PREREQUISITES: PHY 402** Neutron Physics, Flux cross sections; Thermalisation; Fundamentals of thermonuclear reactions, nuclear reactions-Homogeneous and Heterogenous Nuclear reactions – Operation and Control; Reactor Parameters and Control. Reactor Parameters and Critical Sizes; Reactor Kinetics

**PHY 457: ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS (3 UNITS) ** Satellite orbits; remote sensing; processing and resolution of satellite images; applications of remote sensing data; structure and composition of earth’s atmosphere; energy balance; greenhouse effect and global warning; atmospheric motion, pressure gradient and thermal gradient winds; global weather and climate patterns; environmental modeling; environmental risk-benefit analysis.

**PHY 461: GEOPHYSICS III (3 UNITS)**

Electrical and electromagnetic methods; Electrical properties of rocks: resistivities and conductivities; Electrical profiling: sounding and interpretations; Electromagnetic methods: classification, applications in geological mapping, groundwater and conductive mineral exploration; Tonnage and quality estimation. Field work.

**PHY499: Project**